Research Publications

Khoury, J.E., Ahtam, B., Ou, Y., Jenkins, E., Klengel, T., Shevenell, M., Bosquet Enlow, M., Grant, P.E., Lyons-Ruth, K. Linking maternal disrupted interaction and infant limbic volumes: The role of infant cortisol output. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 2023, accepted for publication.

Lyons-Ruth, K., Ahtam, B., Li, F.H., Dickerman, S., Khoury, J. E., Sisitsky, M., Ou, Y., Bosquet Enlow, M., Teicher, M., Grant, P.E. Negative versus withdrawn maternal behavior: Differential associations with infant grey and white matter during the first two years of life. Human Brain Mapping, 2023, In press.

Lyons-Ruth K, Ahtam B, Khoury JE, Li FH, Sisitsky M, Ou Y, Bosquet Enlow M, Grant PE. Maternal childhood abuse versus neglect associated with differential patterns of infant brain development. Res Child Adolesc Psychopathol. 2023, 10.1007/s10802-023-01041-4.

Khoury JE, Cunningham M, Jenkins E, Bosquet Enlow M, Lyons-Ruth K. Latent profiles of maternal disrupted communication: Relations to infant affect and behavior at four months of age. British J. Developmental Psychology, 2023 June; 41(2): 99-116.

Schneider M, Obsuth I, Szymanska M, Mathieu J, Nezelof S, Lyons-Ruth K, Vulliez-Coady L. Attachment-based parent-adolescent interaction linked to visual attention and autonomic arousal to distress and comfort stimuli. BMC Psychol. 2022 May 2;10(1):112. doi: 10.1186/s40359-022-00821-9. PMID: 35501885; PMCID: PMC9063334.

Lyons-Ruth K, Yarger H. Developmental costs associated with early maternal withdrawal. Child Dev Perspect. 2022 Mar; 16(1): 10-17. Open Access.

Madigan S, Eirich R, Racine N, Borland-Kerr C, Cooke JE, Devereux C, Plamondon AR, Tarabulsy GM, Cyr C, Haltigan JD, Bohr Y, Bronfman E, Lyons-Ruth K. Feasibility of training service providers on the AMBIANCE-Brief measure for use in community settings. Infant Ment Health J, 2021 May; 42(3): 438–451.

Brumariu LE, Kerns KA, Giuseppone KR, Lyons-Ruth K. Disorganized/controlling attachments, emotion regulation, and emotion communication in later middle childhood. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology. 2021; 76, 101324.

Khoury JE, Ahtam B, Sisitsky M, Ou Y, Gagoski B, Enlow MB, Teicher MH, Grant PE, Lyons-Ruth K. Maternal childhood maltreatment is associated with lower infant grey matter volume and amygdala volume during the first two years of life. Biol Psychiatry: Glob Open Sci 2021.

Khoury JE, Dimitrov L, Bosquet Enlow M, Haltigan JD, Bronfman E, Lyons-Ruth K. Patterns of maternal childhood maltreatment and disrupted interaction between mothers and their four-month-old infants. Child Maltreat. 2021 Apr; (27)3: 366-377.

Khoury JE, Beeney J, Bosquet Enlow M, Shiff I. Lyons-Ruth K. Maternal experiences of childhood maltreatment moderate patterns of mother-infant cortisol regulation under stress. Dev Psychobiol. 2020 Jul; 63(5): 1309-1321.

Brumariu LE, Owen MT, Dyer N, Lyons-Ruth K. Developmental pathways to BPD-related features in adolescence: Infancy to age 15. J Pers Disord. 2020 Sep; 34(Suppl B):104-129. 32539619

Lyons-Ruth K, Brumariu LE. Emerging child competencies and personality pathology: Toward a developmental cascade model of BPD. Curr Opin Psychol. 2021 Feb; 37:32–38. PMID 32818836

Khoury JE, Rajamani M, Bureau JF, Easterbrooks M, Lyons-Ruth K. Aspects of parent–child interaction from infancy to late adolescence are associated with severity of childhood maltreatment through age 18. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2020 May 26; 17(11), 3749. PMID 32466383

Cooke JE, Eirich R, Racine N, Lyons‐Ruth K, Madigan S. Validation of the AMBIANCE‐brief: An observational screening instrument for disrupted caregiving. Infant Ment Health J. 2020 May; 41(3),299-312. PMID: 32045020

Khoury J, Bosquet Enlow M, Patwa M, Lyons-Ruth K. Hair cortisol in pregnancy interacts with maternal depressive symptoms to predict maternal disrupted interaction with her infant at 4 months. Dev Psychobiol. 2020 Sep; 62(6): 768-782. PMID: 32037544

Terry M, Finger B, Lyons-Ruth K, Sadler LS, Slade A. (2021). Hostile/Helpless maternal representations in pregnancy and later child removal: A pilot study. Infant Ment Health J. 2021 Jan; 42(1): 60–73.

Khoury J, Pechtel P, Andersen CM, Teicher MH, Lyons-Ruth K. Relations Among maternal withdrawal in infancy, borderline features, suicidality/self-injury, and adult hippocampal volume: A 30-year longitudinal study. Behav Brain Res. 2019 Nov 18; 374: 112139. PMID: 31381974

Khoury J, Zona K, Bertha E, Choi-Kain L, Hennighausen K, Lyons-Ruth K. Disorganized attachment interactions among young adults with borderline personality disorder, other diagnoses, and no diagnosis. J Pers Disord. 2020 Dec; 34(6), 764-784. PMID: 30785838

Nyström-Hansen M, Andersen MS, Khoury JE, Davidsen K, Gumley A, Lyons-Ruth K, MacBeth A, Harder S. Hair cortisol in the perinatal period mediates associations between maternal adversity and disrupted maternal interaction in early infancy. Dev Psychobiol. 2019 May; 61(4): 543-556.

Khoury JE, Bosquet Enlow M, Plamondon A, Lyons-Ruth K. The association between adversity and hair cortisol levels in humans: A Meta-analysis. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2019 May; 103:104-117. PMID: 30682626

Lyons-Ruth K, Riley C, Patrick MPH, Hobson RP. Disinhibited attachment behavior among infants of mothers with borderline personality disorder, depression, and no diagnosis. Personality Disorders: Theory, Research, and Treatment. 2019 Mar; (10)2: 163-172. PMID: 30628799 doi:10.1037/per0000312

Verhage ML, Fearon RP, Schuengel C, van IJzendoorn MH, Bakermans‐Kranenburg MJ, Madigan S, Roisman G, Oosterman M, Behrens KY, Wong MS, Mangelsdorf S, Priddis LE, and Brisch KH and the Consortium. Examining ecological constraints on the intergenerational transmission of attachment via individual participant data meta‐analysis. Child Dev. 2018 Nov; 89(6): 2023-2037. PMID: 29740805

Brumariu L, Giuseppone K, Kerns K, Van de Walle M, Bureau JF, Bosmans G, Lyons-Ruth, K. Middle childhood attachment strategies: Validation of an observational measure. Attachment and Human Development. 2018 Oct; 20(5); 491-513. doi:10.1080/14616734.2018.1433696

Haltigan JD, Madigan S, Bronfman E, Bailey H, Borland-Kerr C, Mills-Koonce R, Lyons-Ruth K. Refining the assessment of disrupted maternal communication: Using item response models to identify central indicators of disrupted behavior. Dev Psychopathol. 2019 Feb; 31(1): 261-277. doi:10.1017/S0954579417001778

Boston Change Process Study Group*. Engagement and the emergence of a charged other. Contemporary Psychoanalysis. 2018; 54(3), 540-559. (*Study Group members in alphabetical order: Bruschweiler-Stern N, Lyons-Ruth K, Morgan A, Nahum J, Reis B)

Boston Change Process Study Group*. Moving through and being moved by: Embodiment in development and in the therapeutic relationship. Contemporary Psychoanalysis. 2018; 54(2), 299-321. (*Study Group members in alphabetical order: Bruschweiler-Stern N, Lyons-Ruth K, Morgan A, Nahum J, Reis B)

Lyons-Ruth K. Revisiting the idealizing transferences: “Needful Things” and the Faustian bargain. Psychoanalysis, Self and Context. 2017; 12: 3, 197-210. DOI: 10.1080/24720038.2017.1320093

Lyons-Ruth K, Todd-Manly J, Von Klitzing K, Tamminen T, Emde R, Fitzgerald H, Campbell P, Keren M, Berg A, Foley M, Watanabe H. The worldwide burden of infant mental and emotional disorder: Report of the task force of the World Association for Infant Mental Health. Infant Ment Health J. 2017 Nov; 38(6): 695-705. doi:10.1002/imhj.21674

Granqvist P, Sroufe LA, Dozier M, Hesse E, Steele M, van Ijzendoorn M, Solomon J, Schuengel C, Fearon P, Bakermans-Kranenburg M, Steele H, Cassidy J, Carlson E, Madigan S, Jacobvitz D, Foster S, Behrens K, Rifkin-Graboi A, Gribneau N, Spangler G, Ward MJ, True M, Spieker S, Reijman S, Reisz S, Tharner A, Nkara F, Goldwyn R, Sroufe J, Pederson D, Pederson D, Weigand R, Siegel D, Dazzi N, Bernard K, Fonagy P, Waters E, Toth S, Cicchetti D, Zeanah CH, Lyons-Ruth K, Main M, and Duschinsky, R. Disorganized attachment in infancy: A review of the phenomenon and its implications for clinicians and policy-makers. Attach Hum Dev. 2017 Dec; 19(6): 534–558. doi:10.1080/14616734.2017.1354040

Tereno S, Madigan S, Lyons-Ruth K, Plamondon A, Atkinson L, Guedeney N, Greacen T, Dugravier R, Saias T, Guedeney A. Assessing a change mechanism in a randomized home-visiting trial: Reducing disrupted maternal communication decreases infant disorganization. Dev Psychopathol. 2017 May; 29(2): 637–649. doi:10.1017/S0954579417000232

Marcoux AA, Bernier A, Sequin J, Armerding J, Lyons-Ruth K. How do mothers with borderline personality disorder mentalize when interacting with their infants? Personal Ment Health. 2017 Feb; 11(1): 14-22. doi:10.1002/pmh.1362

Lyons-Ruth K, Pechtel P, Yoon SA, Anderson CM, Teicher MH. Disorganized attachment in infancy predicts greater amygdala volume in adulthood. Behav Brain Res. 2016 Jul 15; 308: 83-93. doi:10.1016/j.bbr.2016.03.050

Byun S, Brumariu L, Lyons-Ruth K. Disorganized attachment in young adulthood as partial mediator of relations between severity of childhood abuse and dissociation. J Trauma Dissociation. 2016 May 23; 17(4): 460-479. PMID: 26836233

Brumariu L, Bureau JF, Nemoda Z, Sasvari-Szekely M, Lyons-Ruth K. Attachment and temperament revisited: Infant distress, attachment disorganisation and the serotonin transporter polymorphism. J Reprod Infant Psycho. 2016 oct 06; (34)1: 77-89. PMID: 26912941

Madigan S. Brumariu L, Villan, V, Atkinson L, Lyons-Ruth K. Representational and questionnaire measures of attachment after early childhood: A meta-analysis of relations to child internalizing and externalizing problems. Psychol Bull. 2016 Apr; 142 (4): 367-399. PMID: 26619212

Brumariu L, Obsuth I, Lyons-Ruth K. Quality of attachment relationships and peer relationship dysfunction among late adolescents with and without anxiety disorders. J Anxiety Disord. 2013 Jan; 27(1), 116-124. PMID: 23247207

Finger B, Byun S, Melnick S, Lyons-Ruth K. Hostile-Helpless states of mind mediate relations between childhood abuse severity and personality disorder features. Transl Dev Psychiatry. 2015 Nov 04; 3(1): 28785.

Lyons-Ruth K, Brumariu L, Bureau JF, Hennighausen K, Holmes B. Role confusion and disorientation in young adult-parent interaction among individuals with borderline symptomatology. J Pers Disord. 2015 Oct; 29(5): 641-662. PMID: 25248019

Lyons-Ruth K. Commentary: Should we move away from an attachment framework for understanding disinhibited social engagement disorder (DSED)? A commentary on Zeanah and Gleason. Journal of Child Psychology & Psychiatry. 2015 Mar; 56(3): 223–227.

Lyons-Ruth K. Prologue to Dissociation and the Parent-Infant Dialogue: A Longitudinal Perspective from Attachment Research”. Attachment: New Directions in Psychotherapy and Relational Psychoanalysis. 2015; 9(3):251-252

Yoon S, Kelso GA, Lock A, Lyons-Ruth K. Mother-infant joint attention and sharing: relations to disorganized attachment and maternal disrupted communication. J Genet Pyschol. 2014 Nov 20; 175(6): 494-510.

Obsuth I, Hennighausen K, Brumariu L, Lyons-Ruth K. Disorganized behavior in adolescent-parent interactions: Relations to attachment state of mind, partner abuse, and psychopathology. Child Dev. 2014, Jan-Feb; 85(1): 370-387.

Pechtel P, Lyons-Ruth K, Anderson CM, Teicher M.H. Sensitive periods of amygdala development: The role of maltreatment in preadolescence. Neuroimage. 2014, Aug 15; 97: 236-244.

Pechtel P, Murray L, Brumariu L, Lyons-Ruth K. Reactivity, regulation, and reward responses to infant cues among mothers with and without psychopathology: An fMRI review. Transl Dev Psychiatry. 2013 Sep 5; 1(1): 19673.

Boston Change Process Study Group*. Enactment and the emergence of new relational organization. Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association. 2013; 61(4): 727-749. (*Study Group members in alphabetical order: Bruschweiler-Stern N, Lyons-Ruth K, Morgan A, Nahum J, Sander L, Stern D).

Lyons-Ruth K, Bureau J, Easterbrooks A, Obsuth I, Hennighausen K, Vuillex-Coady L. Parsing the construct of maternal insensitivity: Distinct longitudinal pathways associated with early maternal withdrawal. Attach Hum Dev: Festschrift Issue for MDS Ainsworth. 2013; 15(5–6); 562–582.

Crockett E, Holmes B, Granger D, Lyons-Ruth K. Maternal disrupted communication during face-to-face interaction at four months: Relation to maternal and infant cortisol among at-risk families. Infancy. 2013 Nov; 18(6): 1111-1134.

Vulliez-Coady L, Obsuth I, Torreiro Casal M, Ellertsdottir L, Lyons-Ruth K. Maternal role-confusion: Relations to maternal attachment and mother-child interaction from infancy to adolescence. Infant Ment Health J. 2013 Mar; 34(2): 117-131.

Lyons-Ruth K, Bureau JF, Holmes B, Easterbrooks M, Brooks NH. Borderline symptoms and suicidality/self-injury in late adolescence: Prospectively observed relationship correlates in infancy and childhood. Psychiatry Research. 2013 Apr; 206(2-3): 273-281.

Pechtel P, Woodman A, Lyons-Ruth K. Early maternal withdrawal and non-verbal childhood IQ as precursors for substance abuse diagnosis in young adulthood: Results of a 20-year prospective study. International Journal of Cognitive Therapy. 2012 Aug; 5(3): 316-329.

Shi Z, Bureau JF, Easterbrooks MA, Zhao X, Lyons-Ruth K. Childhood maltreatment and prospectively observed quality of early care as predictors of antisocial personality disorder. Infant Mental Health Journal. 2012 Jan 23; 33(1): 55-69.

Oliveira P, Soares I, Martins C, Silva J, Marques S, Baptista J, Lyons-Ruth K. Indiscriminate behavior observed in the Strange Situation among institutionalized toddlers: Relations to caregiver report and to early family risk. Infant Mental Health Journal. 2012 Mar 06; 33(2): 187-196.

Easterbrooks MA, Bureau JF, Lyons-Ruth K. Developmental correlates and predictors of emotional availability in mother-child Interaction: A longitudinal study from infancy to middle childhood. Dev Psychopathol. 2012 Feb; 24(1):65-78.

Lyons-Ruth K, Choi-Kain L, Pechtel P, Bertha E, Gunderson J. Perceived parental protection and cortisol responses among young females with borderline personality disorder and controls. Psychiatry Research. 2011 Oct 30; 189(3): 426-432.

O’Connor E, Bureau JF, McCartney K, Lyons-Ruth K. Risks and outcomes associated with disorganized/controlling patterns of attachment at age three in the NICHD Study of early child care and youth development. Infant Mental Health Journal. 2011 Jul; 32(4): 450-472.

Nemoda Z, Lyons-Ruth K, Szekely A, Bertha E, Faludi G, Sasvari-Szekely M. Association between dopaminergic polymorphisms and borderline personality traits among at-risk young adults and psychiatric inpatients. Behavioral and Brain Functions. 2010 Jan; 6(4): 1-11.

Najmi S, Bureau J, Chen D, Lyons-Ruth K. Maternal attitudinal inflexibility: Longitudinal relations with mother-infant interaction and childhood hostile-aggressive behavior problems. Child Abuse Negl. 2009 Dec; 33(12): 924-932.

Hobson RP, Patrick M, Hobson JA, Crandell L, Bronfman E, Lyons-Ruth K. How mothers with borderline personality disorder relate to their one-year-old infants. Br J Psychiatry. 2009 Oct; 195(4): 325-330. Doi:10.1192/bjp.bp.108.060624

Dillon D, Holmes A, Birk J, Brooks NH, Lyons-Ruth K, Pizzagalli D. Childhood adversity is associated with left basal ganglia dysfunction during reward anticipation in adulthood. Biol Psychiatry. 2009 Aug; 66(3): 206-213.

Bureau J, Easterbrooks A, Lyons-Ruth K. Maternal depressive symptoms in infancy: Unique contribution to children’s depressive symptoms in childhood and adolescence? Dev Psychopathol. 2009 April; 21(2): 519-537.

Bureau J, Easterbrooks A, Lyons-Ruth K. Attachment disorganization and role-reversal in middle childhood: Maternal and child precursors and correlates. Attach Hum Dev. 2009 May 19; 11(3): 265-284.

Dutra L, Bureau J, Holmes B, Lyubchik A, Lyons-Ruth K. Quality of early care and childhood trauma: A prospective study of developmental pathways to dissociation. J Nerv Ment Dis. 2009 Jun; 197(6): 383-390.

Lyons-Ruth K, Bureau J, Riley C, Atlas-Corbett AF. Socially indiscriminate attachment behavior in the Strange Situation: Convergent and discriminant validity in relation to caregiving risk, later behavior problems, and attachment insecurity. Dev Psychopathol. 2009 Apr; 21(2): 355-372.

Boston Change Process Study Group*. Forms of relational meaning: Issues in the relations between the implicit and reflective-verbal domains. Psychoanalytic Dialogues. 2008; 18: 125-148. (*Study Group members in alphabetical order: Bruschweiler-Stern N, Lyons-Ruth K, Morgan A, Nahum J, Sander L, Stern D).

Lyons-Ruth K. Contributions of the mother-infant relationship to dissociative, borderline, and conduct symptoms in young adulthood. Infant Ment Health J. 2008 May 13; 29(3): 203-218.

Gunderson J. Lyons-Ruth K. BPD's interpersonal hypersensitivity phenotype: A gene-environment transactional model. J Pers Disord. 2008 Feb; 22(1): 22-41.

Walter M, Bureau JF, Holmes BM, Bertha EA, Hollander M, Wheelis J, Brooks NH, Lyons-Ruth K. Cortisol response to interpersonal stress in young adults with borderline personality disorder: a pilot study. Eur Psychiatry. 2006 Mar 06; 23(3): 201–204.

Gervai J, Novak A, Lakatos K, Toth I, Danis I, Ronai Z, Nemoda Z, Sasvari-Szekely M, Bureau JF, Bronfman E, Lyons-Ruth K. Infant genotype may moderate sensitivity to maternal affective communications: Attachment disorganization, quality of care, and the DRD4 polymorphism. Soc Neurosci. 2007 Jul 17; 2(3-4): 307-319.

Lyons-Ruth K, Holmes B, Sasvari-Szekely M, Ronai Z, Nemoda Z, Pauls D. Serotonin transporter polymorphism associated with borderline and antisocial features. Psychiatr Genet. 2007 Dec; 17(6): 339-343.

Lyons-Ruth K, Melnick S, Patrick M, Hobson P. A controlled study of hostile-helpless states of mind among borderline and dysthymic women. Attach Hum Dev. 2007 Mar 07; 9(1): 1-16.

Boston Change Process Study Group*. The foundational level of psychodynamic meaning: Implicit process in relation to conflict, defense, and the dynamic unconscious. Int J Psychoanal. 2007; 88:1-16. (*Study Group members in alphabetical order: Bruschweiler-Stern N, Lyons-Ruth K, Morgan A, Nahum J. Sander L, Stern D).

Lyons-Ruth K. Play, precariousness, and the negotiation of shared meaning: A developmental research perspective on child psychotherapy. J Infant Child Adolesc Psychother. 2006; 5: 142-159.

Lyons-Ruth K. The interface between attachment and intersubjectivity: Perspective from the longitudinal study of disorganized attachment. Psychoanal Inq. 2006; 26: 595-616.

Lyons-Ruth K, Easterbrooks MA. Assessing mediated models of family change in response to infant home-visiting: A two-phase longitudinal analysis. Infant Ment Health J. 2006 Jan; 27(1-2): 55-69.

Lyons-Ruth K, Dutra L, Schuder M, Bianchi I. From infant attachment disorganization to adult dissociation: Relational adaptations or traumatic experiences? In R. Chevetz, Ed. Dissociative Disorders. Psychiatr Clin North Am 2006; 29: 63-86.

Holmes B M, Lyons-Ruth K. The RQ-clinical version: Introducing a profoundly-distrustful attachment orientation with validation. Infant Ment Health J. 2006; 27: 310-325.

Lyons-Ruth K, Yellin C, Melnick S, Atwood G. Expanding the concept of unresolved mental states: Hostile/Helpless states of mind on the adult attachment interview are associated with atypical maternal behavior and infant disorganization. Dev Psychopathol. 2005 March; 17(1): 1-23.

David D, Lyons-Ruth K. Differential attachment responses of male and female infants to frightening maternal behavior: Tend or befriend vs. fight or flight? Infant Ment Health J. 2005 Jan 4; 26(1): 1-18.

Boston Change Process Study Group*. Response to Commentaries. J Am Psychoanal Assoc. 2005: 53; 761-769. (*Study Group members in alphabetical order: Bruschweiler-Stern N, Lyons-Ruth K, Morgan A, Nahum J, Sander L, Stern D).

Lyons-Ruth K. L’Interface entre attachment et intersubjectivite: Perspectives issues de l’etude longitudinale de l’attachment desorganise. Psychother. 2005; 25: 223-234.

Boston Change Process Study Group*. The ‘something more’ than interpretation revisited: Sloppiness and cocreativity in the psychoanalytic encounter. J Am Psychoanal Assoc. 2005; 53:693-729. (*Study Group members in alphabetical order: Bruschweiler-Stern N, Harrison A, Lyons-Ruth K, Morgan A, Nahum J, Sander L, Stern D, Tronick E.).

Agrawal HR, Gunderson J, Holme, BM, Lyons-Ruth K. Attachment studies with borderline patients: A review. Harv Rev Psychiatry. 2004; 12: 94-104.

Lyons-Ruth K, Spielman E. Disorganized infant attachment strategies and helpless-fearful profiles of parenting: Integrating attachment research with clinical intervention. Infant Ment Health J. 2004 Jul; 25(4): 318-335.

Lyons-Ruth K, Melnick S. Dose-response effect of mother-infant clinical home-visiting on aggressive behavior problems in kindergarten. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2004 Jun; 43(6): 699-707.

Lyons-Ruth K, Yellin C, Melnick S, Atwood G. Childhood experiences of trauma and loss have different relations to maternal unresolved and hostile-helpless states of mind on the AAI. Attach Hum Dev. 2003 Dec; 5(4): 330-352.

Lyons-Ruth K. The two-person construction of defenses: Disorganized attachment strategies, unintegrated mental states, and hostile-helpless relational processes. J Infant Child Adolesc Psychother. 2003:2: 105-11.

Lyons-Ruth K. Dissociation and the parent- infant dialogue: A longitudinal perspective from attachment research. J Am Psychoanal Assoc. 2003; 51: 883-911.

Boston Change Process Study Group*. Explicating the implicit: The local level and the microprocess of change in the analytic situation. Int J Psychoanal. 2002; 83:1051-1062. (*Study Group members in alphabetical order: Bruschweiler-Stern N, Harrison A, Lyons-Ruth K, Morgan A, Nahum J, Sander L, Stern D, Tronick E.).

Boston Change Process Study Group*. The emergence of new experiences: Relational improvisation, recognition process, and non-linear change in psychoanalytic therapy. Psychologist/Psychoanalyst, Fall 2001, 21; 13-17. (*Study Group members in alphabetical order: Bruschweiler-Stern N, Harrison A, Lyons-Ruth K, Morgan A, Nahum J, Sander L, Stern D, Tronick E.)

Lyons-Ruth K. The two-person construction of defenses: Disorganized attachment strategies, unintegrated mental states, and hostile/helpless relational processes. Psychologist-Psychoanalyst. Spring 2001; p. 14-17.

Lyons-Ruth K. El inconsciente bipersonal: el diálogo intersubjectivo, la representación relacional actuada y la emergencia de nuevas formas de organización relacional. Aperturas Psicoanaliticas. 2000, 4.

Lyons-Ruth K, Wolfe R, Lyubchik A. Depression and the parenting of young children: Making the case for early preventive mental health services. Harv Rev Psychiatry. 2000; 8: 148-153.

Lyons-Ruth, K. I sense that you sense that I sense...: Sander’s recognition process and implicit relational moves in the psychotherapeutic setting. Infant Ment Health J. 2000; 21: 85-98.

Lyons-Ruth K, Lyubchik A, DiLallo J. The impact of early home-visiting services on behavior problems and social competence in kindergarten: A three and a half year followup. Infant Ment Health J. 2000 Sep; 21(4-5), 292.

Easterbrooks MA, Biesecker G, Lyons-Ruth K. Infancy predictors of emotional availability in middle childhood: The roles of attachment security and maternal depressive symptomatology. Attach Hum Dev. 2000 Sep; 2(2): 170-187.

Lyons-Ruth K, Bronfman E, Parsons E. Maternal frightened, frightening, and atypical behavior and disorganized infant attachment strategies. In J. Vondra and D. Barnett (Eds.) Atypical Attachment in Infancy and Early Childhood Among Children at Developmental Risk. Monogr Soc Res Child. 1999, 64(3, Serial No. 258): 67-96.

Lyons-Ruth K. The two-person unconscious: Intersubjective dialogue, enactive relational representation, and the emergence of new forms of relational organization. Psychoanal Inq. 1999; 19: 576-617.

Lyons-Ruth K. From birth to school-age: Influence of maternal factors, infant attachment, and preventive intervention on outcomes of the infant at social risk. Prospettive Psicoanalitiche nel Lavoro Instituzionale. 1999; 2: 78-90.

Stern DN, Sander LW, Nahum JP, Harrison AM, Lyons-Ruth K, Morgan AC, Bruschweiler-Stern N, Tronick EZ. Non interpretive mechanisms in psychoanalytic therapy: The “something more” than interpretation. Int J Psychoanal. 1998; 79: 903-921.

Lyons-Ruth K. Implicit relational knowing: Its role in development and psychoanalytic treatment. Infant Ment Health J. 1998; 19: 282-289.

Lyons-Ruth K, Easterbrooks M, Cibelli C. Disorganized attachment strategies and mental lag in infancy: Prediction of externalizing problems at age seven. Dev Psychol. 1997 Jul; 33(4): 681-692. doi: 10.1037//0012-1649.33.4.681

Lyons-Ruth K, Block D. The disturbed caregiving system: Relations among childhood trauma, maternal caregiving, and infant affect and attachment. Infant Ment Health J. 1996; 17(3):157-275. Abstracted in the Brown University Child Development Newsletter, Fall 1996.

Lyons-Ruth K. Attachment relationships among children with aggressive behavior problems: The role of disorganized early attachment patterns. J Consult Clin Psych. 1996 Feb; 64(1): 64-73.

Lyons-Ruth K. Broadening our conceptual frameworks: Can we reintroduce relational strategies and implicit representational systems to the study of psychopathology? Special section on Parental depression and distress: Implications for the development of offspring. Dev Psychol. 1995; 31(3): 432-436.

Alpern, L, Lyons-Ruth K. Preschool children at social risk: Chronicity and timing of maternal depressive symptoms and child behavior problems at school and at home. Dev Psychopathol. 1993; 5(3): 371-387. Abstracted in Clinician's Research Digest 1993; 11: 6.

Lyons-Ruth K, Alpern, L, Repacholi B. Disorganized infant attachment classification and maternal psychosocial problems as predictors of hostile-aggressive behavior in the preschool classroom. Child Dev. 1993, Apr; 64(2): 572-585.

Lyons-Ruth K. Rapprochement or approchement: Mahler's theory reconsidered from the vantage point of recent research on early attachment relationships, Psychoanalytic Psychology. 1991; 8: 1-23.

Lyons-Ruth K, Kaufman P, Masters N, Wu J. Issues in the identification and long-term management of Munchausen by proxy syndrome within a clinical infant service, Infant Mental Health Journal. 1991; 12: 309-320.

Lyons-Ruth K, Repacholi B, McLeod S, Silva E. Disorganized attachment behavior in infancy: Short-term stability, maternal and infant correlates and risk-related subtypes. Dev Psychopathol. 1991; 3: 377-396.

Lyons-Ruth K, Connell D, Grunebaum H, Botein D. Infants at social risk: Maternal depression and family support services as mediators of infant development and security of attachment. Child Dev. 1990 Feb; 61(1):85-98. Abstracted in Pediatrics Digest 1990; 8: 26-27.

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