Maternal and Infant Stress Response
The five major aims of the study are as follows:
- To test the hypothesis that mothers exposed to severe intrafamilial maltreatment, compared to unexposed mothers, will show differences in structure of brain regions critical to stress regulation (including the amygdala, hippocampus/subiculum, and medial orbitofrontal cortex (MOFC)) and differences in maternal neuroendocrine and BOLD fMRI response during an in-scanner psychosocial stress challenge.
- To test the hypothesis that exposure to intrafamilial maltreatment is associated with blunted maternal basal cortisol at home and to maternal disrupted communication with the infant at 4 and 12 months of age, and to assess the degree to which these associations are mediated by functional and structural neurobiological differences in regions of interest and/or psychiatric symptomatology.
- To test the hypothesis that maternal blunted basal cortisol at 4 months and 12 months is related to maternal disrupted communication, infant attachment disorganization, and disregulation of infant cortisol responses at 4 mos (reactivity) and 12 mos (reactivity and diurnal rhythm), and to assess the degree to which maternal disrupted behavior or infant disorganization mediates any relations between atypical maternal cortisol and disregulation of infant cortisol.
- To test the hypothesis that differences in volume and connectivity of the infant amygdala at 1 year of age will be related to contextual risk factors, including maternal maltreatment, maternal low basal cortisol, maternal disrupted communication, and disregulation of infant stress responses, and to assess whether any maltreatment-related differences in infant brain morphology are mediated by differences in maternal or infant behavior or stress regulation.
- To test the alternative hypothesis that mothers exposed to severe intrafamilial maltreatment, compared to unexposed mothers, will show differences in prenatal cumulative stress exposure (hair assay), basal salivary cortisol, and psychiatric symptoms, and that prenatal rather than postnatal maternal differences will explain differences in infant outcomes.
Psychopathology and Controlling Behavior in Adolescence
The three major aims of the study are as follows:
- To develop and validate a coding protocol for identifying controlling-punitive, controlling-caregiving, and other insecure-disorganized behavior in adolescence.
- To assess the degree to which adolescent disorganized/controlling attachment strategies are associated with adolescent psychiatric morbidity.
- To assess whether overall relational risk in infancy is an important antecedent of disorganized/controlling attachment strategies in adolescence, with other variables controlled.
Translational Measures of Anhedonia in Humans and Rats
The four major aims of the study are as follows:
- To investigate the effects of chronic life stressors, including maltreatment and deviant care in infancy, on hedonic capacity among depressed and non-depressed individuals using an objective, laboratory-based measure of anhedonia.
- To investigate the effects of acute stress on hedonic capacity and brain mechanisms underlying stress-induced impairments in hedonic capacity.
- To develop and evaluate an animal analogue of the signal-detection task.
- To investigate the effects of early maternal separation on hedonic capacity in rodents.
The Serotonergic System and Self- or Other-Damaging Behavior
The three major aims of the study are as follows:
- To investigate the relations between candidate gene polymorphisms related to serotonin neurotransmitter function and antisocial or borderline features in young adulthood in the full US sample.
- To replicate in a Hungarian sample of young adults the preliminary findings in the US sample of a relation between the short allele of the 5HTTLPR and impulsive self- and other-damaging behaviors.
- To investigate the relative contributions of the serotonergic system and extent of maltreatment, as well as their interaction in the development of young adult borderline and antisocial traits.
Genetic and Caregiving Effects on Disordered Attachment
The three major aims for this collaborative study are as follows:
- To assess whether polymorphisms of the dopamine D4 receptor (DRD4) and serotonin transporter (5-HTT) candidate genes constitute genetic risks for disorganized attachment strategies in infancy or for aspects of psychopathology in childhood and adolescence.
- To assess whether maternal atypical caregiving behaviors are associated with maternal genotypes of the above-mentioned candidate genes.
- To assess whether an additive or interactive statistical model best represents the interplay of genetic diathesis and maternal caregiving behavior in the prediction of disorganized attachment in infancy, once both maternal and offspring genetic contributions are accounted for, pooling data from the collaborating labs.
Attachment and Risk in Early Adolescence
This study is investigating three hypotheses:
- Maternal non-autonomous and Unresolved status on the Adult Attachment Interview increases maternal vulnerability to disregulated HPA axis responses to stress.
- Maternal stress reactivity increases risk to adolescent children of substance abuse and psychopathology.
- Maternal attachment effects on adolescent adaptation will be mediated by quality of parent-child interaction, family instability, and family conflict and cohesion.